Related links. French version. To secure its communication, contents are certified on the blockchain using Wiztrust. Groupe BPCE. More photos. More videos. More experts. You start and result: full of ice crystals or hard as stone when frozen, too sweet that melts quickly Don't panic! We will teach you how to make smooth ice cream Who doesn't know the Trianon, also known as the Royal chocolate?
Composed of a hazelnut dacquoise, a praline feuillantine and a ligth chocolate mousse, this dessert is simply irresistible! Her name Tatin or Bourdaloue, chocolate or lemon, shortcrust or puff So follow us in a workshop where you will realize gourmet pies and assorted garnishes.
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From the most traditional to the most original, the pie will be undoubtedly the queen of desserts! How consider a Christmas dinner without Yule log? Fruity or chocolaty, rolled or ice, the Yule log is THE dessert year end. Light on this essential at a workshop where you will cover all the methods to make step by step a gourmet ice log that will impress!
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This year, I make the Yule log! As baguette and cheese, what more French than our iconic croissant? Established in Vienna to celebrate the victory against the Turks, the croissant was revisited in France to become what it is today. Learn and master the art of layering -A to Z- to make homemade pastries with a incomparable taste.
Croissants, escargots, french chocolatine -or chocolate croissants for some! How to cover a cake of sugar paste? How to get beautiful angles? What toppings use? We'll bring you all answers in our workshop.
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Designed to introduce novice and more, our workshop takes place in a small group to accompany you to the maximum. Learn all the secrets and the art of making beautiful and good cakes! Discover in this workshop our tasty variations of pastries. Two-colored croissant, oranais, windmills Let yourself be tempted by the complexity and balance of its composition and learn how to make this classical.
You could eat it infinitely.
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Created in honor of a cycling race connecting the two cities, the Paris-Brest has risen to the rank of the favorites of French pastry. Make shiny and crunchy chocolates as greedy as those of your confectioner, it's not as complicated as you might think. Origin and choice of chocolate, tempering, molding, dipping, decorations Make molded and soaked chocolate candies with various fillings and become the new Charlie and the chocolate factory!
According to legend, the pastry chef Stohrer invented the baba at the request of King Stanislas. Wine and rum, there was one step! Since then, time has passed but Ali Baba is the same: a marvel of balance with a soft bun dough sprinkled with alcohol and traditional or original garnishes. Learn how to make this classic pastry available in 4 versions, depending on seasonal fruits and the chef's inspiration.
Want to make a good and beautiful cream desserts worthy of the greatest pastry chefs? Game of flavors and textures, sweetness and modernity: nothing is left to chance to make you a great chef! If its origin is uncertain, Black Forest is a mythical and a sublime cake. A extra gourmet chocolate mousse and a modern setting for a classic but chic Black Forest! Created in by the Dalloyau house, Opera is probably one of the most refined and subtle pastries. The second question, namely the form of federal statutes that interact with provincial law, is an essential element in the choice that must be made between textual unity that is, a single term used in each language to express the norm and textual duality that is, a civil law term and a common law term used in each language to express the norm.
While the goal of textual unity is to find a neutral term or expression that can make the norm equally accessible to both legal traditions, that of textual duality is to speak to each person in the "language" of civil law or common law with which he or she is familiar. Both these types of questions arise in the context of the Crown Liability and Proceedings Act , as they do for most federal statutes that involve some interaction with provincial law.
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It is this framework that I have selected to outline the observations that flow from this preliminary study of the Act. This being said, before presentation of these observations in greater detail, it will be useful to restate the obvious: the intensity of the relationship between the text and the norm must not be exaggerated. The discussions that took place at the symposium of March 25, , and during the day of work that followed are a good illustration of this. Beyond the commendable political and symbolic objective motivating the review of federal statutes, it would be incorrect to believe that the text and the norm are perfectly interrelated.
As shown in Figure 4, labor cost and size — of those DSOs for which data are available on Amadeus — differ widely across DSOs and their service companies. Compensation is generally highest with the service companies, ranging from 94, to , euros per employee per year. How do these labor costs compare to the energy sector as whole as well as general compensation developments in Belgium and Europe? Figure 4 shows that, while Belgian energy sector workers saw their compensation decline by an average of 2. If one includes also those DSOs for which data are only available for more recent years see note on the unbalanced time series under Figure 4 , the yearly increase amounts to 1.
Meanwhile, real compensation across all sectors of the economy increased by less than 0. In the European average, energy sector compensation increased by 0. It would be interesting to investigate whether this compensation increase is offset by productivity changes or whether it is a consequence of labor force demographics. The most clear-cut application of benchmarking is yardstick competition, a term coined by Shleifer If properly designed, such a scheme provides all firms with the incentives to minimize costs and, in theory, only leaves firms with information rent on the idiosyncratic, firm-specific part of their costs Auriol-Laffont, The traditional form of regulation is the cost-recovery regime — frequently also referred to as cost of service, cost-plus, or rate-of-return regulation.
Under such regimes, firms are reimbursed for preapproved investments, on which they are usually also granted a regulated rate of return, and are generally allowed to directly pass though certain operating costs to consumers. These schemes tend to create a considerable administrative burden because regulators need to closely monitor firms to avoid inflated operating expenditures or unnecessary investments known as goldplating or Averch-Johnson effect.
Due to the fundamental information asymmetry between regulator and firm — the burden of proof resting firmly on the regulator — even well endowed principals tend to find it difficult to induce firms to be efficient in both static and dynamic terms. Here, the regulator determines a fixed reduction X of some base-level price or revenue ex ante. Profit-maximizing DSOs will hence find it optimal to minimize costs. The key informational challenge associated with these regimes is to determine the size of the initial cap — if set too high firms will make excessive profits, if the cap is too low firms may go bankrupt — and how to determine the appropriate X-factor.
Firms are awarded concessions based on tender auctions commonly formulated in tariff levels using a pre-defined task specification and time periods between five and fifteen years Agrell and Bogetoft, While franchise auctions in principle are a powerful tool to bridge the informational gap between regulator and firm, the practical implementation is not trivial as bidding may be collusive, incumbents tend to have an undue information advantage over entrants, and it is challenging to maintain investment incentives towards the end of the concession contract. Last but not least, the asset transition is difficult to organize, especially against the background of partially privatized operators owning the networks who cannot simply be expropriated.
However, tendering off specific investment projects, such as the installation of smart meters or introducing franchise bidding for offshore generation connections as in the UK may be an interesting option. Beyond such spatial or technical service extensions, however, franchise auctions are unlikely to play a major role in electricity distribution in the foreseeable future Agrell and Bogetoft, Implementing such a model in a robust way that is not prone to manipulation by the industry is difficult since the regulator is less informed about best practice, costs and standards than the firms.
The practical operation of the model will thus require extensive biased inputs from the side of the firms. Technical norm models also suffer from the problem of perfect hindsight planning as they generally fail to account for the fact that DSOs have to connect clients sequentially NEMESYS, If properly designed, the mechanism is characterized by undistorted production of the most efficient firm at the cost of allowing for positive economic profits , while distorting production of less efficient firms downwards leaving no information rent to the least efficient firm.
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Especially against the background of the increased uncertainty caused with the ongoing energy transition, the implementation of menu of contracts will thus rarely be feasible in practice. The main tools the regulator has to successfully bridge the information gap are yardstick regimes and franchising schemes, but generally only the former is available in the context of electricity distribution. It shows that, while technically only Norway and the Netherlands have a pure yardstick regime in place, elements of yardstick competition, i.
Such benchmarking methods that draw upon yardstick competition can take various forms. They may be based on a clearly defined methodology that includes mechanic elements.
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