Access all 17 draft proposed policy changes here. Comments received will be considered as ISS finalizes the updates to its benchmark voting policies to be applied for shareholder meetings taking place on or after Feb 1, ISS expects to announce its final benchmark policy changes during the first half of November.
Through the comment period, ISS is requesting feedback from all interested market constituents on 17 proposed new policies or potential policy changes, including: For policies covering companies based in Europe , proposed changes out for comment cover: director terms in Continental Europe; the use of discretion by remuneration committees in U. For companies in the United States , proposed changes out for comment include those applying to sunset provisions for dual-class stock structures, share repurchase programs, and shareholder proposals on independent board chairs.
Its main construction was completed between and , although the station continually evolves to include new missions and experiments. It has been continuously occupied since Nov. As of January , individuals from 18 countries have visited the International Space Station. Top participating countries include the United States people and Russia 46 people.
Astronaut time and research time on the space station is allocated to space agencies according to how much money or resources such as modules or robotics that they contribute.
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The ISS includes contributions from 15 nations. Current plans call for the space station to be operated through at least , with the partners discussing a possible extension until Afterwards, plans for the space station are not clearly laid out. It could be deorbited, or recycled for future space stations in orbit. Other international mission control centers support the space station from Japan, Canada and Europe.
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The space station flies at an average altitude of miles kilometers above Earth. In one day, the station travels about the distance it would take to go from Earth to the moon and back. The space station can rival the brilliant planet Venus in brightness and appears as a bright moving light across the night sky. It can be seen from Earth without the use of a telescope by night sky observers who know when and where to look.
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The ISS generally holds crews of between three and six people the full six-person size was possible after , when the station facilities could support it. But crew sizes have varied over the years.
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After the Columbia space shuttle disaster in that grounded flights for several years, crews were as small as two people due to the reduced capacity to launch people into space on the smaller Russian Soyuz spacecraft. The space station has also housed as many as 13 people several times, but only for a few days during crew changeovers or space shuttle visits.
The space shuttle fleet retired in , leaving Soyuz as the only current method to bring people to the ISS. NASA and Roscosmos have also experimented with one-year crews.
The station's altitude averages just over kilometers. Earth's atmosphere continually drags it down.
Mission controllers reboost its altitude regularly using either engines on the Zvezda service module or on visiting spacecraft. Please accept marketing-cookies to view this embedded content. NASA publishes annual highlights of station research that include links to research papers for major station investigations, as well as metrics for peer-reviewed papers related to ISS science. Station astronauts regularly videoconference with students around the world.
The Russian Soyuz is currently the only vehicle able to carry astronauts to the ISS, following the retirement of the space shuttles in The Soyuz has been in service since Launching on the identically named Soyuz rocket, it has 3 sections: a pressurized descent module that carries up to 3 crew members during liftoff and landing, a pressurized orbital module used on orbit for storage and extra crew space, and a separate, inaccessible service module that houses the propulsion, solar arrays, and other instrumentation.
The capsule is not reusable.
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