A typical military confrontation in medieval times was for one side to lay siege to an opponent's castle.
When properly defended, they had the choice whether to assault the castle directly or to starve the people out by blocking food deliveries, or to employ war machines specifically designed to destroy or circumvent castle defenses. Other tactics included setting fires against castle walls in an effort to decompose the cement that held together the individual stones so they could be readily knocked over.
Another indirect means was the practice of mining , whereby tunnels were dug under the walls to weaken the foundations and destroy them.
A third tactic was the catapulting of diseased animals or human corpses over the walls in order to promote disease which would force the defenders to surrender, an early form of biological warfare. Defending soldiers also used trebuchets and catapults as a defensive advantage.
With the advent of gunpowder , firearms such as the arquebus and cannon —eventually the mortar and artillery —were developed. These weapons proved so effective that fortifications , such as city walls , had to be low and thick, as exemplified by the designs of Vauban. The development of specialized siege artillery, as distinct from field artillery , culminated during World War I and II. During the First World War, huge siege guns such as Big Bertha were designed to see use against the modern fortresses of the day.
The apex of siege artillery was reached with the German Schwerer Gustav gun, a huge mm caliber railway gun , built during early World War II. Schwerer Gustav was initially intended to be used for breaching the French Maginot Line of fortifications, but was not finished in time and as a sign of the times the Maginot Line was circumvented by rapid mechanized forces instead of breached in a head-on assault. The long time it took to deploy and move the modern siege guns made them vulnerable to air attack and it also made them unsuited to the rapid troop movements of modern warfare.
Chinese siege warfare: mechanical artillery & siege weapons of antiquity, an - 梁傑明 - كتب Google
Siege weapons are considered obsolete, owing to the effectiveness of aircraft-delivered munitions and cruise missiles which have made defensive area fortifications obsolete. The only cost-effective static defensive structures are now deep bunkers used for military command and control. Even these fixed assets are of questionable value, as it appears that the most survivable command and control of mobile defensive forces such as modern tactical and strategic aircraft , mechanized cavalry and mechanized infantry are through decentralized command and the use of mobile command centers. Full Text Search Details THE FL PART I.
Every point of vantage had its battery or ba He had artillerymen and engineers ; and as soon as he had been apprised of the possibility of war, Those reflections have induced me to give an exact detail of a Siege , honourable to the French name ; whatever may have been the g The siege of Dantzic of which I shall give a faithful history, forms on Campredon, General of Divi- sion, commanded the engineers , the direction of which corps was entrusted to M.
In order to oppose anew to the enemy, a barrier of waters, the officers of engineers determined on breaking theice. This was an incessant task The officers of engineers and artillery used every exertion to add to the fortifica Thermodynamics of the Steam- engine and other Heat- engines. This work is intended for the use of stude Seventh Edition, Rewritten.
Edition, Rewritten. Valve-gears for Steam- engines.
This book is intended to giveengineering students instruction in Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. I think I may cut Haricots, 4s. I was amused to see that one of the best saddlers N 2 My Dashboard Get Published. Sign in with your eLibrary Card close.
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Roman siege engines. A stone-throwing machine set to defend a gate, in the fresco of Guidoriccio da Fogliano by Simone Martini 14th century. The medieval Mons Meg with its 20" 50 cm cannonballs. A German Big Bertha howitzer being readied for firing. Early thermal weapons Fortification Medieval warfare Military engineer Military history List of siege artillery Category:Siege equipment.
Categories All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Siege engines. Funding for USA. On-Topic examples include events that have rockets, pulse jets, tesla coils, magnaformers, homemade subs, pyrotechnics, railguns, catapults, etc. Too often, when we talk about siege engines - catapults, trebuchets, ballistae, and so forth - we focus on European technology.
But it's in the far east where the story begins, at least for gravity powered siege weaponry.cadivus.co.uk/2012-special-report-mexico-non-life.php
A somewhat difficult book to get a hold of not available on Amazon as far as I can tell , this page book did much to plug gaps in my knowledge. Although much of the book deals with Chinese pre-gunpowder siege weaponry, there are smaller sections on western designs and some early gunpowder devices. Incredibly, much of the book has been placed on the web for free , and this book an is absolutely wonderful resource for students of siege engines and model makers. The book is well illustrated, using a combination of line drawings from old texts and colored pictures of the author's recreations of many of the machines discussed in the text.
I noticed that Liang uses rope lashing to connect the wooden members of his machines, which is something I discussed in the Viking Catapult chapter of my book The Art of the Catapult.
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