Historia del Jamón
With the exceptions of Basque or Euskera and Romany the language spoken by gypsies among themselves , the languages and dialects of the Iberian Peninsula are the surviving offspring of spoken Latin. However, beginning with Spain's Golden Age, most languages and dialects other than Castilian have languished, and some have virtually perished. Only within the last two decades have public awareness and government legislation fostered an appreciation of Spain's 'minority' languages -Catalan, Euskera, and Galician- and, to a lesser extent, the Asturian and Aragonese dialects.
Allow me now to illustrate various topics in Spanish language history. Although in the classroom I proceed chronologically and treat both the social history and linguistic dimension of Hispanic society, here I shall synthesize by grouping topics linguistically, respecting the traditional headings of vocabulary lexicon , sounds phonology , and word and sentence formation morphology and syntax. Spanish language history abounds with geographical references and cultural terms easily accessible to undergraduate students Centuries later the Romans gave the name Hispania , thought to be Phoenician in origin and presumed to mean 'land of rabbits', to the entire Peninsula.
The everyday Latin spoken by the Roman legionnaires, merchants, and colonizers, known to us as 'popular' or 'spoken' or 'vulgar' Latin, was especially graphic: and so, for example, casa originally meant 'hut' or 'cabin', caballus was an 'old nag'; and the diminutive vetulu meant 'little old man', cultellu , 'small knife', auricula , 'tiny ear'. The multi-ethnic flavor of Hispanic society was reinforced in with the Muslim invasion from North Africa.
The lexical fields of agriculture and commerce e. In 13th century Toledo, the words of law, science, and history elaborated in Castilian under the sponsorship of Alfonso X 'el Sabio' incorporated such new terms as teatro, tribu, dictador, dictadura, tirano , as well as the now archaic horizon and humido Castilian was now in the prime of its Old Spanish form. Its use extended into the realms of political and cultural expression; its domain was penetrating Aragon to the east, Leon to the west. Still further west, the independent kingdom of Portugal began to cast official documents in its own Romance vernacular; the linguistic map of Iberia was already approaching its modern configuration.
During the second half of the 16th century, the cultural prestige of Castile and the installation of the royal court at Madrid in firmly established the pre-eminence of Castilian speech habits. Spanish vocabulary became modernized as outmoded terms e. And a strange new presence now was felt -an 'Indianization' of Spanish vocabulary- as the language adapted to the flora, fauna, and customs of a new world.
The 18th century witnessed the dismembering of Spain's European empire and a reorganization of internal affairs according to models laid down by new Bourbon kings and their ministers. The Spanish language is accommodating of dialectal preferences. Still other variants involve unique lexical choices piscina in Spain, alberca in Mexico, pileta in Argentina; barrios bajos in Spain, callampa in Chile, villa miseria in Argentina. Vocabulary is the linguistic realm that reflects most readily the political, social, and cultural forces responsible for language change.
Vocabulary is also a sturdy ground on which to paint an arresting portrait of language structure, that is, the sounds, grammatical forms and sentence types that give Spanish its distinctive expression. The sound system of Spanish has evolved over a year period from spoken Latin; the study of this evolution often looms as an intricate web of exotic terminology and rigorous phonetic detail To avoid entanglement, one sound or one basic concept may be selected from each era of Hispanic history for its relevance to later stages of language development.
With Spanish of the Golden Age, we see a quasi-standardized stage of development with medieval traits eliminated e. An especially instructive case of a conservative vs.
- Project MUSE - Hispania-Volume , Number 2, June !
- Historical presentation of Córdoba (English version).
- Breve Historia de Hispania (Spanish Edition);
- Psicología de la Educación (Spanish Edition).
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Culturally, Seville had become the hub of migratory activities where sailors, soldiers, settlers, merchants, and missionaries converged from all parts of Iberia before setting out for the New World. Seville was regularly exporting not only commercial items but social customs, not the least of which were its regional varieties of pronunciation.
The 20th century dialects of Spanish are nearly always mutually comprehensible, despite local differences of pitch and accent. English shirt. English history. The Andalusian dialect, or bundle of dialects, aspirates syllable-final -s and frequently takes the process one step further by omitting word-final -s utterly. The dialects of Chile, Argentina and Uruguay, all innovative areas, normally aspirate syllable-final -s in rapid, informal speech. When dialectal varieties are presented in the classroom, they come to life for students if native speakers demonstrate them, recorded tapes capture them, and videos picture Hispanics communicating on their own turf.
Popular Latin streamlined words and sentences for use in the spontaneous speech of the home and market place. Its grammar and word order were relatively simple; sentences were short; newly formed auxiliary words, verb tenses, and prepositions made their appearance. Throughout the periods of primitive-Romance mainly the 5th-9th centuries and Old Spanish 10thth centuries , Ibero-Romance capitalized upon these tendencies while elaborating newer ones of its own.
Later, the Golden Age of the 16th and 17th centuries brought a period of linguistic stabilization in which, as examples, haber and tener and ser and estar , which in Old Spanish had overlapped in many contexts, each took on distinctive functions. The Hispanic system of interpersonal address will display the complexities of sociolinguistic interplay As a consequence, and to cite one case in point, it was being eliminated by the Peninsular and criollo populations in America who had used it to address mestizo , Black, and Indian subordinates.
However, in outlying areas of the American colonial empire -southern Mexico, Central America, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay- vos maintained its vitality and has survived into our own times as a vestige of rustic Golden Age usage. The contemporary dialects of Spanish continue to juggle the pronouns of address. Type of production: Book chapter Format: Book Position of signature: 1 Degree of contribution: Author or co-author of chapter in book Total no. Salamanca Spain : Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, Las violencias y la Historia. Amor y Sexualidad en la Historia.
ISBN 13: 9788497637701
From Romans to Goths and Franks. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, , pp. Studia Historica. Historia Antigua. Por el ojo de una aguja. Barcelona: , pp.
In this Issue
Historia medieval. Madrid: Escolar y Mayor Editores, , pp. ISBN: Granada: Editorial Universidad de Granada, , pp. Studia Historia. History of Christianity in Spain. Machine translation: Spanish institutions of the Old Regime.
Eroica Hispania - meokfaclackderos.ga
Franco regime slogans. Machine translation: Minguela. Machine translation: Classic currency of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay. Machine translation: Political organization of Hispania. Machine translation: Fabio Nellie Palace. Machine translation: Alto Tajo Natural Park.
Ernesto Tornquist Provincial Park. Spanish Baroque painting. Homoerotic poetry of Al-Andalus. Machine translation: First Homosexual Movement. Pteridophyta - currently redirects to Fern which is linked to es:Pterophyta. Topography of Spain.
Related Breve historia de Hispania (Spanish Edition)
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